________________________________________  COFFEE ROASTING  ________________________________________


Roasting coffee transforms the chemical and physical properties of green coffee beans into roasted coffee products. Although there are many different levels of roasting, the pictures below focus on eight levels of roasting: Light Cinnamon, Cinnamon, City, Full City, Vienna, Espresso, Italian and French. As described in the table below, each level has it's own characteristics.


  Roast level Notes Surface Flavor
Light Cinnamon roast, half city, New England After several minutes the beans “pop” or "crack" and visibly expand in size. This stage is called first crack. American mass-market roasters typically stop here. Dry Lighter-bodied, higher acidity, no obvious roast flavor.
Medium Full city, American, regular, breakfast, brown After a few short minutes the beans reach this roast, which U.S. specialty sellers tend to prefer. Dry Sweeter than light roast; more body exhibiting more balance in acid, aroma, and complexity. Smoother than the traditional American "medium" roast, but may display fewer of the distinctive taste characteristics of the original coffee.
Full Roast High, Viennese, Continental After a few more minutes the beans begin popping again, and oils rise to the surface. This is called second crack. Slightly shiny Somewhat spicy; complexity is traded for heavier body/mouth-feel. Aromas and flavors of roast become clearly evident.
Double Roast French After a few more minutes or so the beans begin to smoke. The bean sugars begin to carbonize. Very oily Smokey-sweet; light bodied, but quite intense. None of the inherent flavors of the bean are recognisable.


Roasting Slide